GORSKI ADDICTION MODEL

April 26, 2016

 The Gorski Comprehensive Addiction Model is a a science-based system that incorporates both chemical and behavioral addictions in a comprehensive biopsychosocial perspective.

THE HUMAN CONDITION: The Gorski Model builds upon a recognition that all addiction is based within the human condition. The human condition is organized and directed by the CORE HUMAN PROCESSES OF PERSONALITY

DEVELOPMENT. The human process begins with an intangible but self-evident primal life force which motivates human beings to survive and thrive in the physical world. The frustration resulting from the collision of the infinite potential of the human spirit with the finite limitation of the physical world results in ANGST, the normal pain of life and living. ANGST is managed by people in one of three ways: DENIAL, it doesn’t exist – everything is beautiful;

DEMORALIZATION, since life hurts I will just give up and stop trying; or MOTIVATION, in spite of the psi of living there is a counterbalancing joy in living that makes it worth while. Motivated people to STRIVE to find safety, security, excitement, and accomplishment in an often difficult and hostile world. They maintain their motivation because of the capacity human beings have for with PASSION. With maturity passion becomes focused into psychological and spiritual practices that help people find peace, serenity, and security without the constant need to strive, perform, and produce.

Many people find that a state of euphoria induced by the addictive use of alcohol and other drugs can give them short term relief from the angst of life. Unfortunately, people who experience this addictive brain response are at high risk of developing addiction. The addictive release leads to obsession I have intrusive thoughts about how good the euphoric response felt. I feel a COMPULSION to repeat the experience.

As the compulsion becomes stronger it turns into CRAVING which turns wanting the addictive release into the need for the addictive release. This creates a self reinforcing pattern of addictive use which is called ADDICTION, which is marked a compulsive pattern of DRUG SEEKING BEHAVIOR.

Over time, the cycle can be described as a EUPHORIC RESPONSE to addictive use, a DYSPHORIC RESPONSE to abstinence, a CRAVING or perceived need to use, DEPENDENCE or being unable to function normally without addictive use, and TOLERANCE the need to use more in order to get the same level of euphoria.

Once the ADDICTION CYCLE BEGINS, addictive THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, URGES, and ACTIONS become engrained in automatic and unconscious habits. These habits attract people who support the addictive way of life or are willing to become committed to enabling it.

These Social and Cultural Reactions to addiction create a permissive environment for early stage addiction when addictive use makes people feel good and be more productive and stigma reaction when people lose control and begin stepping outside of social, cultural and legal limits.

This is all part of the addiction, which is a health crd problem that is best dealt with using a Public health Addiction Policy:

(1) TOXIC SUBSTANCE: Identifying the toxic substances causing the illness;

(2) VULNERABLE HOST: Identifying the people who are predisposed to addiction); and

(3) PERMISSIVE ENVIRONMENT: Changing the societal and cultural norms that make ready access to and heavy regular use of the toxic substances and behaviors socially, culturally, and personally unacceptable.

Gorski Books: http://www.relapse.org

Gorski Training: http://www.cenaps.com

Gorski On Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/gorskirecovery

LIVE SOBER – BE RESPONSIBLE – LIVE FREE

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THE RELAPSE PREVENTION CERTIFICATION SCHOOL (RPCS) – 2015

August 8, 2015

Earn 44 CEUs, In 5 Days, for $695!
  Instructed By: Terence T. Gorski and Dr. Stephen F. Grinstead

November 9-14, 2015

Ft. Lauderdale, FL

Terence T. Gorski’s advanced relapse prevention training has been “a turning point” in both the professional and personal lives of many former participants. The Gorski schools began in 1982 in Chicago, IL. Since that time, over sixty schools have been conducted with over 4,000 people completing the training.

This advanced clinical skills training experience is designed for professional therapists who are good and want to get better. It may be the most challenging and effective training that you have ever attended.

Upon completion of this training, participants will be able to develop comprehensive Relapse Prevention Plans for identifying and managing both high risk situations in early recovery and the core personality and lifestyle problems that lead to relapse in later recovery, after initial stabilization.

The Gorski Relapse Prevention Certification School (RPCS) is continuously updated with the latest research and uses a proven training method that includes:

(1) Brief Lectures that explain the purpose of each technique and why it is important;

(2) Clinical Demonstrations of each RP technique,

(3) Role Play to practice and receive feedback on your use of each technique,

(4) Small Groups to discuss progress, problems, and applications to your personal style;

(5) Discussions of how to apply the techniques in your professional setting.

Do you want to take your current clinical skills and integrate them with new and powerful approaches for identifying and managing the high-risk situations and core personality and life-style patterns that lead to relapse? If you do, this is the training for you!

Important Notice: An optional RPT Competency Certification that requires the completion of a competency portfolio and an additional fee.

Training Fee: The cost of the training is $695 for the five-day training experience (travel, meals, and lodging are not included in this fee).

Florida Location: HYATT REGENCY PIER SIXTY SIX, 2301 SE 17th Street Causeway Fort Lauderdale FL 33316 USA Telephone: 1-954-525-6666 on November 10-14, 2014 (Special hotel rates will be available for those who register early!

For information and Registration:
Tresa Watson at 1-352-596-8000 or tresa@cenaps.com

Website: www.cenaps.com


THE DEFINITION OF RELAPSE 

May 10, 2015

By Terence T. Gorski

Here are the key points of the definition of relapse from a wide variety of internet dictionaries :

To experience a relapse means:

1. The return of a disease or illness after partial or full recovery from i

2. To suffer a deterioration in a disease after a period of improvement.

3. To fall back into illness after convalescence or apparent recovery

4. To have a deterioration in health after a temporary improvement.

5. To fall or slide back into a former state of illness or dysfunction.

6. To regress after partial recovery from illness.

7. To slip back into bad habits or self-defeating ways of living; to backslide after a period of progress.

8. To fall back into a former state, especially after apparent improvement.

Origin of the word RELAPSE: the word relapse comes from the Middle English word “relapsen,” and from Latin meaning to to “forswear” (to promise or swear in advance that a change will be made.   A combination of the words: relb or relps-, came to mean to fall back gradually; or to slide back without being able to stop ones self (as could happen when trying to move up a slippery or muddy hill.

The word relapse results from a linguistic process called “nominalization” which means to describe a process (like loving someone or relating to someone) into a thing (like love or relationship).

It is important to do a “cross-walk” between 12-Step language (i.e. dry drunk leading to a wet drunk) and the language of cognitive behavioral therapy (the process of falling back into an illness, condition, or habitual problem behaviors that ends in the act of drinking, drugging, or acting out an addiction or habitual self-defeating behavior.

Using an “addictive release” provided by an addictive drug or behavior is often seen as the start of a “relapse episode,” a single discreet episode of addictive use.

A relapse episode is usually preceded by stressful events (triggers), that raise stress and activate old self-defeating and addictive ways of thinking, feeling, acting, and relating to other people.

Marlatt distinguished between a lapse (a short term and low consequence episode of addictive use) and a relapse (a return to a previous state of out-of-control addictive acting out usually accompanied by a return of secondary problems related to the addiction.

I believe in a Twelve-Step Plus Approach that matches the needs of individual recovering people with a strong recommendation to attend 12-Strep Programs and to participate in other treatment activities (professionally supervised) and recovery activities (peer supported and community based) that meet individual needs, promotes long-term recovery, and uses appropriate relapse prevention methods. There is no wrong door into recovery. There is no wrong treatment or recovery activity if it helps people to live a sober and responsible life filled with meaning and purpose.

Language Programs The Brain,
Focuses The Mind, and
Motivates Behavior.

Think clearly to get results in recovery!

~ Terry Gorski Blog: www.terrygorski.com

~ Terry Gorski, via www.facebook.com/GorskiRecovery

www.relapse.org

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My Depression Management Plan

January 16, 2015

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By Terence T. Gorski
Author

Read Terry Gorski’s Book: Depression and Relapse

Major depression is a serious problem for many people, including people in recovery from alcoholism and other chemical addictions. Many people suffer from depression in recovery and I was no exception. After more than twenty-five years of sobriety, depression nearly took me down.

I figured out a way to manage it. Part of the process of figuring out what to involved researching depression and writing a book about what I learned from the process. The book Depression and Relapse.

I wrote this blog today because I have friend suffering from depression in recovery. I wrote a summary of the things I did to help myself get through the dark times. I thought it might be helpful to others.

Let me know what you think. If you have survived serious depression and used some tools or techniques that helped but aren’t listed here, add them in a comment and be sure to identify yourself and a link to your blog or website so I can properly reference the source. It might help send some traffic your way. So, let’s get on with it.

To manage my severe depression I had to self-monitor it’s severity four times per day (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and before bed).
I used a ten point scale:

0 = No Depression/Normal Mood;

1 – 3 = Mild Depression: It is a nuisance, but I can put it out of my mind and do all of my acts of daily living.

4 -7 = Moderate Depression: It is a nuisance but at times is so severe and drains so much energy that at times I can’t stay focused on my normal daily tasks. At other times I can.

7 -9 = Severe Depression: I get yo and try to function but I usually can’t complete my daily acts of living so I shrink my world by avoiding things.

10 = Disabling: The depression is so bad that I can barely function at all. I can’t get out of bed, I can’t do basic tasks, and no matter what anyone says or does I feel buried by the depression.

I kept a log four times per day and started looking for pattens. I noticed my depression would move through my life in up-and-down cycles. There were times of the day when I was more depressed no matter what was going on. There were other times of the day when the depression wasn’t as bad. I began to see that there were predictable cycles to the severity of my depression symptoms.

I noticed that the depression started to increase and get worse at certain times of the day. Knowing this allowed me to anticipate when I would be the most depressed and avoid scheduling important things during those times. I also learned the times when I tended to be the least depressed and most functional. This allowed to plan my most important activities during those time.

I also noticed weekly cycles. On certain days of the week I would be more depressed than on others. In other words, I could anticipate the really bad days and the better days.

I began doing things to try and manage the depression symptoms. I kept it simple:

– I scheduled alone time for 15 – 30 minutes a day and just distracted myself with pleasant mindless things.

– I took a twenty minute walk each day.

– I started to do brief (3 – 5 minute) sessions of mindfulness meditation.

Here is how I did it: https://terrygorski.com/2013/12/30/mindfulness-made-https://terrygorski.com/2013/12/30/mindfulness-made-https://terrygorski.com/2013/12/30/mindfulness-made-simple/

I also used a meditation technique called Magic Triangle Relaxation Methof. It is described here: https://terrygorski.com/2014/05/08/magic-triangle-relaxation-method/

It wasn’t easy to manage the depression and most people didn’t understand what I was going through. They would ask me: “Why don’t you just snap out of it?” The answer was easy: “I can’t because I have a depressive illness!”

Many of the people I knew were really angry because I wasn’t able to work as hard or be there for them in the ways I was before I got depressed.

One of the things that kept me going was the research that showed how serious episodes of clinical depression tend to run a course of about nine to eighteen months. Each major depressive episode tends to go through three stages:

Stage 1: Gradual increase in the frequency and severity of depression symptom episodes.

Stage 2: The period of most frequent and intense symptoms. This is the stage where most people seek help because the depression is causing life problems. It’s much better to recognize depression in stage one and make managing the emerging symptoms as a top priority. When I did this I found stage 2 would to be shorter and the depression symptoms less severe and disabling. Yes, I had more than one ride on this roller coaster to dark side of depression. I learned from each ride and used it to make the next ride shorter and more manageable.

Stage 3: A period of gradual Symptom reduction until a normal mood (whatever that is) returns.

What I found is that I had always suffered from a chronic low-grade form of depression called Dysthymia. I also discovered depression ran in my family so I considered low grade depression to be normal.

I also paid attention to my automatic thoughts that made my depression worse. I figured out how to actively challenge my automatic depressive thinking. Both my personal experiences and the research I reviewed on the cognitive therapy of depression were the same:

1. There are automatic thoughts that made my depression worse.

2. When I let these depressive thoughts bounce around in my brain my depression kept getting worse.

The depressive thoughts that make depression worse are:

1. This is awful (Awful means worse than it could ever be).

2. This is terrible (terrible means that there will be serious losses of everything that I value).

3. It’s always been this way, I’ve never had a single moment in my life when I wasn’t depressed.

4. It will always be this way. I won’t ever be able to feel better.

5. I can’t stand the way I feel! (Although it is obvious I could stand it because what else could I do?)

6. I can’t do anything about it. There is nothing I can do to make the symptoms even in a little bit better.

7. I am helpless and hopeless in the face of my depression.

8. There is nothing I can do! I can’t do anything to manage the depression or make myself feel even a little bit better for a few minutes.

9. Being depressed proves that I am no good as a person.

10. My depression has robbed me of everything I value and has made me a helpless, useless, crazy person.

Before I figured all of this out, I became suicidal. I felt the compulsion to end myself. The impulse to commit suicide was so strong and persistent it was difficult to resist.

I had to tell close friends about it. I put all potential suicide tools in the hands of friends with clear instructions not to let me have them back. This included my guns, and anything in the medicine cabinet that could be lethal. There are many over-the-counter medications that can kill you with as few as thirty pills. 

How did I know this? The Internet is a wonderful tool for the suicidal. I put the prescription medications I was taking in the hands of someone else who would give me the daily doses of prescribed medication.

Recognizing and managing my suicidal preoccupations and compulsions is a story for another time.

I also used prayer and meditation. This helped me to transcend or rise above the worst symptoms of depression and to find a meaning in my suffering.

It is important to remember that THIS TO SHALL PASS. Depression is not forever and there are things you can do to reduce the severity and duration of depressive episodes.

Read Terry Gorski’s Book: Depression and Relapse

The exercises in the COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING FOR ADDICTION WORKBOOK can be easily applied to depression.

The principles of 12-Step Programs can also be helpful. See Understanding the Twelve Steps.


Kava and Relapse

January 1, 2015

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By Terence T. Gorski
Author

This information on Kava is reproduced from a Medline Article http://m.medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/872.html

Introduction

Kava is mind altering and mood altering substance that produces an effect on the brain similar to sedative drugs such as Librium or Valium. They are cross addictive with other mood altering drugs. Many people use Kava as they move into relapse process thinking that it will be a free high with no adverse consequence.

Many treatment programs use drug testing regimes that will detect and report Kava use. Lava impairs judgment and impulse control and generally does not produce the desired high or the desired mood altering effect of the drug of choice.

As a result of impaired judgment or impulse control it is easier to rationalize going back to the use of their drug of choice. Using Kava is the start of active drug use episode. It is usually preceded by many early relapse warning signs.

You can do an evaluation of your relapse risk using The Aware Questionnaire

Midline Article On Kava

Scientific name: Piper methysticum
Rank: Species
Higher classification: Piper

Kava or kava-kava is a crop of the western Pacific. The name kava is from Tongan and Marquesan; other names for kava include ʻawa, ava, yaqona, and sakau. The roots of the plant are used to produce a drink with sedative and anesthetic properties.

What is kava?
Kava—or kava kava—is a root found on South Pacific islands. Islanders have used kava as medicine and in ceremonies for centuries.

Kava has a calming effect, producing brain wave changes similar to changes that occur with calming medicines such as diazepam (Valium, for example). Kava also can prevent convulsions and relax muscles. Although kava is not addictive, its effect may decrease with use.

Traditionally prepared as a tea, kava root is also available as a dietary supplement in powder and tincture (extract in alcohol) forms.

What is kava used for?
Kava’s calming effect may relieve anxiety, restlessness, sleeplessness, and stress-related symptoms such as muscle tension or spasm. Kava may also relieve pain.

When taken for anxiety or stress, kava does not interfere with mental sharpness. When taken for sleep problems, kava promotes deep sleep without affecting restful REM sleep.

Kava may be used instead of prescription antianxiety drugs, such as benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants. Kava should never be taken with these prescription drugs. Avoid using alcohol when taking kava.

Is kava safe?
Kava may have severe side effects and should not be used by everyone. Kava has caused liver failure in previously healthy people. You should not use kava for longer than 3 months without consulting your doctor.

Before you use kava, consider that it:

Should not be combined with alcohol or psychotropic medicines. Psychotropic medicines are used to treat psychiatric disorders or illnesses and include antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Alcohol exaggerates kava’s sedating effect.
Can affect how fast you react, making it unsafe to drive or use heavy machinery.
May gradually be less powerful as you use it.
Eventually may cause temporary yellowing of skin, hair, and nails.
Can cause an allergic skin reaction (rare).
Long-term kava use may result in:

Liver problems.
Shortness of breath (reversible).
Scaly rash (reversible).
Facial puffiness or swelling (reversible).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has investigated whether using dietary supplements containing kava is associated with liver illness. Reports from Germany and Switzerland about kava causing serious liver problems have led to the recent removal of these products from shelves in Britain. Other countries have advised consumers to avoid using kava until further information is available.

In the United States, the FDA advises people who have liver disease or liver problems, or people who are taking medicines that can affect the liver, to consult a doctor or pharmacist before using products that contain kava. People who use a dietary supplement that contains kava and experience signs of illness should consult a doctor. Symptoms of serious liver disease include brown urine as well as yellowing of the skin or of the whites of the eyes. Other symptoms of liver disease may include nausea, vomiting, light-colored stools, unusual tiredness, weakness, stomach or abdominal pain, and loss of appetite.

The FDA does not regulate dietary supplements in the same way it regulates medicine. A dietary supplement can be sold with limited or no research on how well it works.

Always tell your doctor if you are using a dietary supplement or if you are thinking about combining a dietary supplement with your conventional medical treatment. It may not be safe to forgo your conventional medical treatment and rely only on a dietary supplement. This is especially important for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.

When using dietary supplements, keep in mind the following:

Like conventional medicines, dietary supplements may cause side effects, trigger allergic reactions, or interact with prescription and nonprescription medicines or other supplements you might be taking. A side effect or interaction with another medicine or supplement may make other health conditions worse.
The way dietary supplements are manufactured may not be standardized. Because of this, how well they work or any side effects they cause may differ among brands or even within different lots of the same brand. The form of supplement that you buy in health food or grocery stores may not be the same as the form used in research.
Other than for vitamins and minerals, the long-term effects of most dietary supplements are not known.

Reference:
1. http://m.medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/872.html

2. http://www.thefix.com/content/mood-and-mind-altering-substances00417?page=all

Gorski Books


Recovery Consciousness

December 20, 2014

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By Terence T. Gorski,
Author

Recovery involves developing a new state of consciousness of yourself, other people, and the world around you. Most importantly, it involves developing a new consciousness of what you can do with the help of others. Recovery is possible. It is not always easy, but you can do it. This belief in your ability to recover is part of what I call RECOVERY CONSCIOUSNESS.

Gorski Books: www.relapse.org


Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT) – An Affordable Evidence-based Practice

November 8, 2014

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By Terence T. Gorski, Author

 

Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT) is an Evidence-based practiced that is recognized by both the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) and the National Institute of Drug Abuse. This is important because relapse following drug treatment is quite common and a collection of tools have been forged into a system for both preventing relapse and stopping it quickly should it occur. “RPT is a behavioral self-control program that teaches individuals how to anticipate and cope with the potential for relapse” (NREPP). In addition, RPT serves to normalize relapse as part of the overall recovery process, thus reducing the negative feelings and behaviors that result from a setback. RPT also provided relapse tools and techniques that patients learn early in treatment that can stop relapse quickly should it occur.

The GORSKI-CENAPS Model of RPT brings proven evidence-based practices to recovery and relapse prevention by providing effective and easy to use methods for identifying and managing early relapse warning signs and high risk situations. It also presents methods for planning to stop relapse quickly should it occur. All of the key practices of evidenced-based Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT) are made available in practical and easy to use workbooks. Training is available to teach the most effective ways to make use the workbooks in individual and group therapy and in support groups. There is also an internationally registry of Certified Relapse Prevention Specialists (CRPS) that are trained to support RPT program implementation.

The Research Supporting RPT Effectiveness

Prevention (RP) is an evidence-based intervention. There is compelling evidence in the literature documenting its effectiveness.

First, let’s look at the results of a meta-analysis of 26 published and unpublished studies with 70 hypothesis tests representing a sample of 9,504 participants. (Irvin et al, 1999)

  • Relapse Prevention (RP) was found to be a widely adopted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for alcohol, smoking, and other substance use.
  • RP was generally effective, particularly for alcohol problems.
  • RP was most effective with alcohol or polysubstance use disorders combined with the adjunctive use of medication

Validation of Gorski’s Relapse Warning Signs

Though it has enjoyed widespread popularity, Gorski’s post-acute withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) model of relapse has been subjected to little scientific scrutiny. A scale to operationalize Gorski’s 37 warning signs was developed and tested in a larger prospective study of predictors of relapse. Of central interest were: (1) whether the warning signs hypothesized by Gorski are interrelated in a meaningful single factor and (2) whether the hypothesized syndrome would accurately predict subsequent relapses.

A sample of 122 individuals (84 men) entering treatment for alcohol problems was followed at 2-month intervals for 1 year. The Assessment of Warning-signs of Relapse (AWARE) scale was administered at each assessment point, and the occurrence of both slips (any drinking) and relapses (heavy drinking) was monitored during each subsequent 2-month interval. Principal factor analysis was used to study the factor structure of the warning signs.

The results showed that: (1) Of the 37 warning signs, 28 clustered as a robust single factor with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.92-0.93); (2) A conservative evaluation of test-retest stability across 2-month intervals estimated reliability at r = 0.80. (3) After covarying for prior drinking status, clients’ AWARE scores significantly predicted subsequent slips and relapses. Relapse rates for clients with highest AWARE scores, as projected by regression equations, were 33 to 46 percentage points higher than those for clients with lowest AWARE scores, after taking into account prior drinking status.

The conclusion is that this scale of Gorski’s warning signs appears to be a reliable and valid predictor of alcohol relapses. (J. Stud. Alcohol 61: 759-765, 2000)

Relapse Prevention (RP): Controlled Clinical Trials (Carroll 1996)

(1) More than 24 randomized controlled trials have evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention treatment on substance use outcomes among adult smokers, alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, and other types of substance abusers. Review of this body of literature suggests that, across substances of abuse but most strongly for smoking cessation,

(2) There is evidence for the effectiveness of relapse prevention compared with no-treatment controls across all drug categories.

(3) Relapse Prevention is most effective at:

  • Treating patients with long histories of chronic relapse after attempting recovery with other treatment methods.
  • Maintaining the positive effects of improvements made during treatment (enhanced durability of effects)
  • Reducing the length and severity of damage caused by relapse episodes when they occur;

(4)      The positive effects of RP are enhanced by patient-treatment matching.

(5) Patient-treatment matching improves outcomes for patients at higher levels of impairment along dimensions such as psychopathology or dependence severity.

Manualized Treatment

Manualized Treatment Improves Effectiveness of treatment (i.e. increases recovery rates, decreases relapse rates, and produces shorter less destructive relapse episodes. The results are achieved while reducing time in therapy.

The primary treatment manuals that help produce these outcomes are:

  1. Starting Recovery With Relapse Prevention Workbook: A workbook designed to integrate basic relapse prevention principles in to the first attempts at addiction recovery.
  2. Cognitive Restructuring for Addiction Workbook: A workbook designed to teach and apply the basic recovery skills of thought management, feeling management, behavior management, impulse control, the use of mental imagery, and a serious of relaxation methods, including mindfulness meditation, that has been proven to enhance the effectiveness of the cognitive component of relapse prevention. This work allows an easy application of RPT methods to a wide variety of additive and mental health problems.
  3. Relapse Prevention Counseling (RPC) Workbook: This is a guide for understanding and managing craving and high risk situations to avoid relapse during the critical first ninety days of recovery.
  4. Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT) Workbook: This is a guide for helping recovering people with a stable recovery program to identify and manage the personality and lifestyle problems that can so must pain and dysfunction in recovery that self-medication seems like a positive choice. This workbook takes RPT to a deep psychotherapy level.
  5. Problem Solving Group Therapy (PSGT): There are two simple guidelines for using RPT in problem solving groups. There is a Participant Guide to prepare group members with easy to understand information on how to succeed at group therapy and a group leader guide giving in-depth instruction how to start, conduct, and manage common problems that occur in problem solving groups.

When these five practical tools are brought together into a well designed and comprehensive treatment program the quality of care, moral of the staff, and positive long-term outcomes of treatment tend to improve.

WORKBOOKS  USING RELAPSE PREVENTION THERAPY (RPT) – AN EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE  http://wp.me/p11fHz-7s

References

The CENAPS Model of Relapse Prevention was originally developed by Terence T. Gorski and continually updated to integrate new research findings. (Gorski 1990, )

Carroll, Kathleen M., Relapse prevention as a psychosocial treatment: A review of controlled clinical trials. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol 4(1), Feb 1996, 46-54.

Gorski, Terence T., The CENAPS Model of Relapse Prevention: Basic Principles and Procedures, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 22, Issue 2, 1990, pages 125- 133, ON THE INTERNET: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.1990.10472538

Irvin, Jennifer E.; Bowers, Clint A.; Dunn, Michael E.; Wang, Efficacy of relapse prevention: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 67(4), Aug 1999, 563-570.

Miller, William R. and Harris, Richard J.  A Simple Scale of Gorski’s Warning Signs for Relapse, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Volume 61, 2000, Issue 5: September 2000 ON THE INTERNET: http://www.jsad.com/jsad/article/A_Simple_Scale_of_Gorskis_Warning_Signs_for_Relapse/814.html

 

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