A Sober and Responsible World

March 25, 2015

 
By Terence T. Gorski, Author (his books can be found on www.relapse.org and on Amazon

We all work together to build a sober and responsible world. This coin comes from Narcotics Anonymous (NA) in Bahrain. The coin reads: “Living clean, the journey continues.” 
Perhaps there is hope for a sober and peaceful world. 

This was sent to me by Gary Addictioncounselor on Facebook. 
You can learn more from the NA Asian Pacific page: http://www.apfna.org 


No One Is Responsible, Yet We Are All  Responsible. 

February 28, 2015



No one person is responsible for the powerful network of recovery, yet paradoxically, we are all responsible when we share our courage, strength, and hope and our knowledge of the effective principles and practices of recovery. 

No one person is responsible for the powerful network of recovery, yet paradoxically, we are all responsible when we share our courage, strength, and hope and our knowledge of the effective principles and practices of recovery. 

Through the power of out group conscience, we can participate in doing things together that none of us could do almone. 

“Recovery is and probable will remain a group activity.” ~ Terry Gorski, February 28. 2015 




Are Alcoholics Allergic To Alcohol?

August 18, 2014

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By Terence T. Gorski, Author

In the early days of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) the alcoholic was thought to have a physical allergy to alcohol which caused their Alcoholism. I was recently asked about this and I thought I would share my answer.

The idea that an alcoholic has an allergy to alcohol is more of a metaphor than a statement of medical fact.

There is no doubt that alcoholics have an abnormal response to using alcohol, but technically it is not an allergic response.

Recent brain research suggests that this abnormal response to alcohol is an addictive brain response caused by a disruption in the pleasure or reward centers of the brain. This creates an intense sense of euphoria when using and a state of agitated depression when abstinent. This reinforces reinforces continued use.

As the brain develops tolerance for the alcohol it takes higher doses to feel the euphoria so the quantity of drinking in increases. This creates a pattern of compulsive use described in AA literature as a loss of control.

The metaphor of an allergy to alcohol is easier to understand for a newly sober person than the idea of an addictive brain response, so the metaphor is still useful.

It seems that people who become addicted to other mood altering drugs, including alcohol, have a similar addictive brain response to their drug of choice. I describe this in detail my book Straight Talk About Addiction: http://www.relapse.org/custom/cart/edit.asp?p=154773

I also have a book based upon Father Martin’s interpretation of the 12-Steps that I wrote as a result of our time spent together designing the Relapse Prevention Program for Father Martin’s Ashley.

I developed a two day workshop for addiction professionals on understanding the twelve steps in a way that could be easily related to cognitive therapy. This workshop was based primarily upon what I learned from Father Martin as he explained his understanding of the Twelve Steps to me. The edited transcription of this workshop was published as the book Understanding The Twelve Steps: http://www.relapse.org/custom/list.asp?c=37332&pageid=62383


Understanding The Twelve Steps

May 12, 2014

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by Terence T. Gorski
Author

Millions of people have transformed their lives by working the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. Their success has come from their ability to truly understand these principles and to apply them in their daily lives. Yet for many embarking on the road to recovery, the Steps can seem vague, even confusing.

This practical, no-nonsense guide takes the mystery out of the Twelve Steps, presenting a straightforward explanation of what each step means, as well as examples of how it translates to real life. Written by a certified alcoholism and drug abuse counselor with more than twenty years of experience, it offers a wealth of wisdom, knowledge, and genuine support for anyone in recovery.
Understanding the Twelve Steps features:

Clear, easy-to-understand interpretation of the Twelve Steps — the vital building blocks of recovery.
This book provides checklists that summarize the tasks and objectives of each step.

This book explains:

– The Twelve Promises are the positive changes you can expect in your life if you follow the Twelve Steps

– What happens at Twelve Step meetings

– Why it is important to have a sponsor

– How the 12-step Program allows recovering people to share their experience, strength, and hope

From Library Journal

This highly accessible guide to the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) that comes at a time when the popularity of such programs are at an all-time high. Drawing on his experience as an alcohol/substance abuse counselor, Gorski (author of Passages Through Recovery , HarperCollins, 1989) interprets each of the steps, and explains their importance in the recovery process.

This book provides valuable insight into how the steps can be “worked” or used by those trying to abstain from alcohol is also provided. While Melody Beattie’s Codependents’ Guide to the Twelve Steps (Prentice Hall Pr., 1990) focuses on the steps as they apply to people dealing with codependent issues, Gorski’s primary audience is the alcoholic. However, those newly involved in other 12-step programs (i.e., Al-Anon, Gamblers Anonymous, etc.) will gain better understanding from this. Recommended for popular psychology and self-help collections.

– Linda S. Greene, Chicago

Back to Understanding the Twelve Steps: An Interpretation and Guide for Recovering (Paperback)
About this item
Product Description
Millions of people have transformed their lives by working the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. Their success has come from their ability to truly understand these principles and to apply them in their daily lives. Yet for many embarking on the road to recovery, the Steps can seem vague, even confusing.
This practical, no-nonsense guide takes the mystery out of the Twelve Steps, presenting a straightforward explanation of what each step means, as well as examples of how it translates to real life. Written by a certified alcoholism and drug abuse counselor with more than twenty years of experience, it offers a wealth of wisdom, knowledge, and genuine support for anyone in recovery.
Understanding the Twelve Steps features:
Clear, easy-to-understand interpretation of the Twelve Steps — the vital building blocks of recovery
Checklists that summarize the tasks and objectives of each step
The Twelve Promises — the positive changes you can expect in your life if you follow the Twelve Steps
What happens at Twelve Step meetings and why it is important to have a sponsor
The experiences, strength, and hope of other recovering people

From Library Journal
This highly accessible guide to the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous comes at a time when the popularity of such programs are at an all-time high. Drawing on his experience as an alcohol/substance abuse counselor, Gorski ( Passages Through Recovery , HarperCollins, 1989) interprets each of the steps, and explains their importance in the recovery process. Valuable insight into how the steps should be “worked” or used by those trying to abstain from alcohol is also provided. While Melody Beattie’s Codependents’ Guide to the Twelve Steps (Prentice Hall Pr., 1990) focuses on the steps as they apply to people dealing with codependent issues, Gorski’s primary audience is the alcoholic. However, those newly involved in other 12-step programs (i.e., Al-Anon, Gamblers Anonymous, etc.) will gain better understanding from this. Recommended for popular psychology and self-help collections.
– Linda S. Greene, Chicago
Copyright 1991 Reed Business Information, Inc.

About the Author
Terence T. Gorski is the president of The CENAPS Corporation, a training and consultation firm specializing in recovery from addictive disease and relapse prevention therapy. He is a popular speaker and conducts training and workshops in more than twenty different cities each year.

Mr. Gorski is the author of numerous books, audio, and video tapes, including Passages Through Recovery — An Action Plan for Preventing Relapse, Staying Sober — A Guide for Relapse Prevention, The Staying Sober Work-book, and How to Start Relapse Prevention Support Groups.

He is the clinical director of the National Relapse Prevention Certification School, which trains counselors and therapists in relapse prevention therapy methods.

Here is an excerpt from the book. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1: WHAT IS A TWELVE STEP PROGRAM?

This book describes the single, most effective program for the treatment of alcoholism. That program, of course, is Alcoholics Anonymous, best known as A.A. Alcoholics Anonymous is a worldwide fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength, and hope with each other in an effort to recover from alcoholism. It is a voluntary fellowship. No one is forced to belong, but millions of voluntary members benefit greatly from their involvement. If you want to make Twelve Step programs work for you, you need to understand the fellowship of A.A. and how to work with it. This book is intended to help you do just that.

Many people find the miracle of sobriety by working the Twelve Steps. Since nothing else has worked for them, many believe that the Steps are mystical and magical, and, as a result, these same persons fail to search for and identify the underlying principles that make them work. Working the Steps can create the miracle of sobriety, but the miracle isn’t magic. The miracle occurs because working the Twelve Steps allows people to use powerful principles of recovery. Those who are willing to dig beneath the surface and truly understand the principles upon which the Steps are based are better able to use the principles in their lives.

The primary purpose of A.A. is to help alcoholics stop drinking. It was never intended to be all things to all people; however, A.A. recognizes that the Twelve Steps can help people with other problems. Thus, it allows organizations such as Narcotics Anonymous, Cocaine Anonymous, Marijuana Anonymous, Overeaters Anonymous, and others to use its Steps and principles. These related fellowships are developing as separate organizations so that A.A. can keep its primary focus on helping alcoholics to stop drinking.

A.A. is based upon a program of Twelve Steps to recovery that act as a personal guide to sobriety, and Twelve Traditions that act as guiding principles or bylaws for A.A. as a whole. Knowledge of the Twelve Steps is of critical importance to all recovering people for two reasons: (1) The Steps work if you work them, and (2) Twelve Step programs are inexpensive and readily available in most communities. As a result, they are the most widely used lifeline for people recovering from chemical dependence, codependence, and other compulsive or addictive disorders.

A.A. AS A NONPROFESSIONAL GROUP

As a result of the Traditions, A.A. is and shall forever remain nonprofessional. There are no medical professionals, as such, involved in designing or running A.A. or other Twelve Step programs. Although medical professionals do join as members, they have no more or no less influence on the organization than other members. Twelve Step programs do not provide medical or psychiatric treatment or psychotherapy. If you are involved in any Twelve Step program that has a psychotherapist in charge who runs it like a therapy group, be cautious. You are probably not at a Twelve Step meeting. This situation rarely, if ever, occurs in A.A.; however, it does happen in some of the newer Twelve Step programs.

If you are attending a Twelve Step meeting that is run by a psychotherapist who individually counsels the members, it is not a Twelve Step meeting; it is a therapy group. It is important to learn the difference, because Twelve Step meetings are based on the Twelve Steps of A.A. and the leaders act in a nonprofessional role.

A.A. members help themselves and others to stay sober. Members can be assured that they are not going to be solicited for donations or asked to get involved in anything else. Individual members of A.A. do have the right to participate in any religion, political forum, or cause that they wish. There are no restrictions. But they are not allowed to present themselves as A.A. members or to bring the name of A.A. into any controversy.

LEVELS OF TWELVE STEP INVOLVEMENT

Nobody is forced to do anything in A.A. It is one of the few organizations I know that supports the inherent constitutional right to do what we want. There is no coercion to participate on any level. If you want to belong, that’s fine. You are welcome to attend meetings and work the Steps. If you don’t want to belong, that’s also fine.

For most members, however, their involvement progresses through a number of levels. At the first level, they attend meetings. At the second, they read Twelve Step literature and discuss it with other members of the program. At the third level, they get a sponsor who can show them how the program works. At the fourth level, they start working the Twelve Steps. As members start to grow and change — a result of attending meetings and working the Steps — they are ready to move to a fifth level of involvement and begin sponsoring others. After they gain experience as sponsors, they are then ready for the sixth level of involvement, general service work, guided by A.A.’s Twelve Traditions, the set of principles that act as bylaws. General service work is designed to benefit A.A. as a whole. Notice the progression: Individuals help themselves first, then they help other people in the program, then they help the program as a whole. In summary, the levels of involvement are as follows:

1. Attending meetings

2. Reading and discussing A.A. literature

3. Getting a sponsor

4. Working the Twelve Steps

5. Sponsoring others

6. Service guided by the Traditions

Attending Meetings

You start working a Twelve Step program by regularly attending meetings. In A.A. it is said, “If you bring the body, the mind will follow,” because the Twelve Step program rubs off on people if they hang around long enough. Attending meetings isn’t a passive process. Working a program means you need to get actively involved, participating at the meetings you attend. The easiest way to take part is to say, “I pass” — a perfectly acceptable remark. No one in a Twelve Step program is obligated to say more. Most people, however, want to say more because they find it both enjoyable and beneficial. The more open and honest your comments, the faster you get well.

There is a joke that asks, “What is the difference between a drunk and an alcoholic?” Answer: “A drunk doesn’t have to go to meetings; an alcoholic does!” A.A. stresses the importance of attending meetings, especially during the first three months of sobriety. Many members suggest attending ninety meetings in ninety days. By doing “ninety in ninety,” beginners receive an intense exposure to the Twelve Step program and the people who use it. The principle that underlies doing “ninety in ninety” is a simple one — the more meetings you attend early on, the greater your chances of long-term recovery. There is no rule, of course, that you have to attend exactly ninety meetings in the first ninety days; go as often as your lifestyle allows. But keep in mind that the more meetings you attend, the faster you will get well.

Many members complain about having to attend meetings, but those who recover keep going even when they don’t feel like it. You don’t have to like going to meetings, you just have to keep going. Meetings are the lifeline to sobriety. When you attend meetings, you take a needed time-out from an alcohol- and drug-centered world and remind yourself that you are an alcoholic, cannot safely use alcohol and other drugs, and that you need the fellowship of other sober alcoholics to stay sober.

Reading Twelve Step Literature

The second level of involvement is to read Twelve Step literature and discuss your reactions, both positive and negative, with other members. The early members of A.A. identified the basic principles needed to get sober and stay that way. They compiled that information in two books — Alcoholics Anonymous (often called the Big Book) and Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions. Both books are available from the central office of Alcoholics Anonymous in New York City. These books provide the basic principles needed to begin living the sober life.

Getting a Sponsor

After you feel comfortable going to meetings, making comments, and reading the basic literature, the third level of involvement is to get a sponsor. A sponsor is another member of the Twelve Step program who has more experience at recovery than you do. In order to get a sponsor, you must have participated in the program long enough to get to know people. Listen to the comments of others. Try to find someone you respect and admire, someone who knows more than you do about the program and can show you the ropes. In the business world, a sponsor is called a mentor.

When you find such a person and ask him or her to be your sponsor, you are in essence asking, “Would you be willing to spend time with me and teach me how you work the program?” There’s a slogan in the Twelve Step program: “If you want what we have, you do what we did.” And it’s primarily in the sponsorship relationship that this principle comes alive. You find a sponsor who has the type of recovery you would like to have, ask him to teach you what steps he took, and then try to do those things in your recovery.

A therapist does not take the place of a sponsor. You need a Twelve Step sponsor even if you have the best therapist in the world. A good therapist will encourage recovering people to become involved in Twelve Step programs and to get a sponsor. As a therapist, I don’t mandate Twelve Step attendance, but I do strongly encourage it. If someone refuses to attend even one meeting to see what the organization is all about, I may say, “If you’re not willing to go to Twelve Step meetings, I’m not willing to treat you. Why? Because if you’re not willing to go and find out what Twelve Step programs involve, I don’t think you really want to do what’s necessary to recover.” I base this attitude on an A.A. slogan: “We must be willing to go to any lengths to get sober.” If you are not willing to clear a few evenings and attend some meetings, I question your willingness …p

About the Author
Terence T. Gorski is the president of The CENAPS Corporation, a training and consultation firm specializing in recovery from addictive disease and relapse prevention therapy. He is a popular speaker and conducts training and workshops in more than twenty different cities each year.

Mr. Gorski is the author of numerous books, audio, and video tapes, including Passages Through Recovery — An Action Plan for Preventing Relapse, Staying Sober — A Guide for Relapse Prevention, The Staying Sober Work-book, and How to Start Relapse Prevention Support Groups.

http://www.amazon.com/gp/aw/d/0671765582?pc_redir=1399803668&robot_redir=1


Twelve Step Programs and Treatment Outcome, Gossom et al 2003

May 12, 2014

12-Steps Outcome

By Terence T. Gorski,
Author

The relationship between regular attendance in 12-Step Programs and improved treatment outcomes is well established. This is why 12-Step Facilitation, which is an evidenced-based practice, regular attendance at 12-Step Meetings, and systematically working the 12-steps with a sponsor has been strongly recommended to support Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT). Secular support groups such as SMART Recovery are also available.

When addiction professionals recommend 12-Step Programs as part of an addiction recovery program it is import to be aware of the controversy and legal opinions related to the question if Alcoholics anonymous and other 12-step programs are religious in nature according to the law. This controversy is explored in an in-depth blog: Is A.A. A Religion by Terence T. Gorski.

Here is an abstract of a 2003 article reporting on a six-month followup study regarding A.A. effectiveness (Gossom et al 2003).

Gossom and his associates studied the relationship between attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings prior to, during, and after inpatient treatment and treatment outcome was studied. The research sample included 150 patients in an inpatient alcohol treatment program who met ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence. The participants were interviewed at admission and 80% of the sample was reinterviewed 6 months following departure. The following results of the study were seen:

(1) Significant improvements in drinking behaviors, including frequency, quantity, and reported problems; in psychological problems; and in quality of life;

(2) Superior drinking outcomes for frequent AA attenders compared to non-AA attenders and infrequent attenders;

(3) Greater reductions in alcohol consumption and more abstinent days for those who attended AA on a weekly or more frequent basis after treatment;

(4) A finding that this effect was sustained after controlling for potential confounding variables; and

(5) A finding that the improvements were related only to improved drinking outcomes and that many of the sample had alcohol and psychiatric problems at follow-up. It is concluded that adequate aftercare services are often lacking and that AA is a useful aftercare resource.

Gossom, M.; Harris, J.; Best, D.; Man, L.H.; Manning, V.; Marshall, J.; Strang, J. Is attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous meetings after inpatient treatment related to improved outcomes?: A 6-month follow-up study. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 38(5):421-426, 2003. (171217)

42 Ref.

LIVE SOBER – BE RESPONSIBLE – LIVE FREE

Understanding The 12-Steps By Terence T. Gorski

GORSKI BOOKS – www.relapse.org


Long-term Recovery and Relapse Management

April 25, 2014

By Terence T. Gorski, Author, April 25, 2014

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The Long Road Home

Recovery can be a long road home, but many people make the journey and arrive safely. This is demonstrated by a 1997 study by Keith Humphreys, Rudolf H. Moos, Caryn Cohen entitled Social and Community Resources and Long-Term Recovery from Treated and Untreated Alcoholism the published in The Journal for the Study of Alcohol in 1997 (J. Stud. Alcohol 58: 231-238, 1997) clearly showed the need to focus upon life-long disease management in the treatment of alcoholism. This means moving rom an acute care treatment model to a chronic care model is important to improving long-term recovery rates. Acute Care Treatment Models focus upon intensive up-front treatment at high levels of care, often medically supervised detoxification and residential rehabilitation while neglecting ongoing coordinated long-term continuing care. In contract, Chronic Disease Management Models for the treatment of alcoholism focus upon improving long-term recovery rates by providing effective stabilization services matched to patient needs, managing relapse by stopping it quickly should it occur, and supporting ongoing recovery that changes as the needs of patients change over the course of a lifetime. It is important that addiction professionals become familiar with the effectiveness of Long-term Chronic Disease Management Approaches to the treatment of addiction. This approach involves:

  • Early identification and intervention;
  • Effective stabilization programs that break the immediate addiction cycle
  • Teaching patients primary recovery skills;
  • Involving families in the recovery process;
  • Building community support services around the needs of recovering people and their families;
  • Preventing relapse when possible by teaching people how to identify and manage early warning signs of relapse and high risk situations;
  • Effectively managing relapse by stopping it quickly should relapse occur and getting the patient back into an ongoing recovery process.

The following outline can be used for presentation summarizing the Humphreys et al 1997 study. Feel free to use it in your public presentations. 1. Long-term studies of the course of alcoholism suggest that a variety of factors other than professional treatment influence the process of recovery. These factors include:

  • Demographic factors;
  • Baseline alcohol-related problems;
  • Depression;
  • Professional treatment;
  • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA);
  • Other social and community resources

2. This study evaluated the role of these factors in predicting remission and psychosocial outcome over 8 years. 3. In this study a sample of 628 previously untreated alcoholic individuals was recruited at detoxification units and alcoholism information and referral services.

  • Of these participants, 395 (68.2%) were followed 3 and 8 years later.
  • Most (83.3%) were white (n = 329) and 50.1% (n = 198) were men.

4. At each contact point, participants completed A self-administered inventory that assessed their:

  •  Current problems,
  • Treatment utilization,
  • AA participation and
  • Quality of relationships.

4. The results showed that:

  • The number of inpatient treatment days received in the 3 years after baseline were not independently related to 8-year remission or psychosocial outcomes.
  • More outpatient treatment in the first 3 years increased the likelihood of 8-year remission, but was not related to psychosocial outcomes.
  • The number of AA meetings attended in the first 3 years predicted remission, lower depression, and higher quality relationships with friends and spouse/partner at 8 years.
  • Extended family quality at baseline also predicted remission and higher quality friendships and family relationships at 8 years.

5. The Conclusions drawn were:

  • Alcoholism is a chronic, context-dependent, and lifestyle related disorder.
  • Short-term up-front interventions have little long-term impact upon recovery rates or quality of life improvements.
  • Social and community resources that are readily available for long periods are more likely to have a lasting influence on the course of alcoholism.

Twelve Step Programs – Conclusions From Research

October 29, 2013

Alcoholics ?anonymous (A.A.) is a science-based intervention with proven effectiveness. A.A. is more effective than non-treated control groups and equally effective to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Motivational Interviewing. This issue is settled in the scientific literature. I have a bibliography of over 200 published articles that support the effectiveness of 12-Step Programs.

Nothing works for everyone. 12-step programs are no exception. People who had a bad experience with 12-Step programs are not reliable reporters. Neither are A.A. advocates who see 12-Step Programs doing all things for all people.

Twelve Step Programs are well-known and utilized in the United States. Of the US adult population:

  • 9% have been to an AA meeting at some time,
  • 3.6% in the prior year, only about one-third of these for problems of their own.
  • About one-half these percentages, mostly women, have attended Al-Anon.
  • Of the same population, 13.3% indicate ever attending a 12-step meeting (including non-alcohol-oriented groups), 5.3% in the last year.
  • During the prior year a further 2.1% used other support/therapy groups and 5.5% sought individual counseling/therapy for personal problems other than alcohol. In contrast to this high reported utilization, only 4.9% (ever) and 2.3% (12-months) reported going to anyone including AA for a problem (of their own) related to drinking. (Room and Greenfield 1993)

Research into 12-Step effectiveness shows clearly that Twelve Step Programs are effective in helping many people recover from alcoholism and drug dependence. Twelve-step programs get many of their members as a result of referrals from professional counselors, therapist, and doctors.

Many people who achieve long-term recovery use other forms of counseling and therapy at various points in their recovery. They use what I call a “12-Step Plus” Approach. Most people use professional counseling and therapy in addiction to working the 12-Step Program. Some people, however, have found recovery through professional therapy and support groups, like SMART Recovery, that are not based on the 12-Steps.

Many people in long-term recovery use 12-Step Programs very heavily in the first one to three years although the frequency of meetings goes down after that. Many people who start in 12-Step programs and achieve a stable recovery significantly reduce or stop attending meetings and do well. Most in this category start attending meetings again or increase the frequency of meeting during highly stressful periods of life.

Twelve Step programs are the single most effective, least expensive, and most readily available recovery program world-wide. As such, it is being supported by managed care companies in order to reduce the price of healthcare. The tendency to refer to A.A. is expected to increase as the Affordable Health Act (ACA) imposed greater demands for cost containment.

Twelve step programs work better when used in conjunction with other forms of counseling, therapy, and treatment.

Relapse rates in 12-Step Programs, and all forms of addiction treatment, are highest in the first 90 days. This is the period of recovery where people are most toxic from the effects of long-term alcohol and drug poisoning to the brain. It is a time of change and crisis. It is the period of time when recovery supports have not yet been firmly established. Detoxification and residential or day treatment are valuable to get people stabilized in this critical first 12 weeks of recovery.

After five years of continuous sobriety relapse in a group of alcoholics is less likely than having addiction develop in a similar group who has never had an addiction.

The comparative effectiveness of 12-step and cognitive-behavioral (C-B) models of substance abuse treatment was examined among 3,018 patients from 15 programs at the US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Across program types, participants showed significant improvements in functioning from treatment admission to a 1-year follow-up. Although 12-step patients were somewhat more likely to be abstinent at the 1-year follow-up, 12-step, C-B, and combined 12-Step–C-B treatment programs were equally effective in reducing substance use and improving most other areas of functioning. The finding of equal effectiveness was consistency over several treatment subgroups: Patients attending the “purest” 12-step and C-B treatment programs, and patients who had received the “full dose” of treatment. Also, patients with only substance abuse diagnoses, those with concomitant psychiatric diagnoses, and patients who were mandated to treatment showed similar improvement at the 1-year follow-up, regardless of type of treatment received. These data provide important new evidence supporting the effectiveness of 12-step treatment. (Ouimette 1997)

References

Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Finney, John W.; Moos, Rudolf H., Twelve-step and cognitive-behavioral treatment for substance abuse: A comparison of treatment effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 65(2), Apr 1997, 230-240.

ROOM, R. and GREENFIELD, T. (1993), Alcoholics anonymous, other 12-step movements and psychotherapy in the US population, 1990. Addiction, 88: 555–562.

You can find other studies with a simple search on Google scholar searching on Twelve Steps Outcomes and Twelve Step Facilitation (TSF).

GORSKI BOOKS

AMAZON: GORSKI’S UNDERSTANDING THE 12-STEPS

GORSKI BOOK: GORSKI’S UNDERSTANDING THE TWELVE STEPS

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